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Tuesday, December 30, 2008

How Fibreglass Is Made

Glass Fibre

Glass fibre being made by blending quarry products; sand, kaolin, limestone, colemanite and other such materials which are melted down. The quantities are carefully adjusted to obtain the type of glass fiber desired. At 1600°C, the liquid glass is passed through micro-fine bushings and simultaneously cooled to produce filaments from 5-24mm in diameter. Filaments are drawn together into a strand (closely associated) or roving (loosely associated), and coated with a “size” to provide filament cohesion and protect the glass from abrasion.

Glass Fibre


Making of Fibre Glass

There are two main types of manufacturing the glass fibre products:
-Direct melt process
-Marble remelt process
Glass Fibre Melt Spinning


Both of the process start with the raw materials in solid form that are mixed together and melted in a furnace.

In the Marble process, the molten material is sheared and rolled into marbles which are cooled and packaged. The marbles are taken to the fiber manufacturing facility where they are inserted into a can and remelted. The molten glass is extruded to the bushing to be formed into fiber.
While in the Direct melt process, the molten glass in the furnace goes right to the bushing for formation.

Direct Melt Process

Types of Fibre Glass

E-glass (electrical):
-lower alkali content (<1%) align="left">C-glass (chemical):
-best resistance to chemical attack.
-Mainly used in the form of surface tissue in the outer layer of laminates
R, S or T-glass:
-Manufacturers trade names of equivalent fibres.
-R (Vetrotex, France), S (Owen Corning, USA) and T (Nittobo, Japan)
-Higher tensile strength and modulus than E glass, with better wet strength retention.Higher ILSS and wet out properties are achieve through smaller filament diameter.
A-glass:
-Soda lime glass with high alkali content between 10-15%.
-Very poor mechanical properties but high resistant to chemical attacks.
D-glass: -Improved dielectric glass developed for high performance electronic applications.

Typical Fiber-Forming E-glass Formulation

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